The breast is the upper ventral region of the torso of a primate, in left and right sides, which in a female contains the mammary gland that secretes milk used to feed infants.
Both men and women develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. However, at puberty, female sex hormones, mainly estrogen, promote breast development, which does not occur in men, due to the higher amount of testosterone. As a result, women’s breasts become far more prominent than those of men.
Astrological beliefs in correspondences between celestial observations and terrestrial events have influenced various aspects of human history, including world-views, language and many elements of social culture. Among Indo-European peoples, astrology has been dated to the third millennium BC, with roots in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. Until the 17th century, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition, and it helped drive the development of astronomy.
It was commonly accepted in political and cultural circles, and some of its concepts were used in other traditional studies, such as alchemy, meteorology and medicine. By the end of the 17th century, emerging scientific concepts in astronomy, such as heliocentrism, were irrevocably undermining the theoretical basis of astrology, which subsequently lost its academic standing. In the 20th century astrology gained broader consumer popularity through the influence of regular mass media products, such as newspaper horoscopes.Early origins Astrology, in its broadest sense, is the search for meaning in the sky. It has been argued that astrology began as a study as soon as human beings made conscious attempts to measure, record, and predict seasonal changes by reference to astronomical cycles.
When people fall ill they inevitably ask: ‘Why am I ill?’ and ‘How do I get better?’ Throughout history, the answers have been sought and provided through a mixture of natural, spiritual and moral meanings. People have rarely understood illness through just one of these components.
Using the Spirits to cure disease
In many ancient societies the spirits and gods were believed to make their presence known through disease. Treatment involved attempts to satisfy them with ritual chanting or sacrifice, though this was often combined with direct treatment of the sick person. In Egypt astrological explanations and advice sat alongside prescription of herbal medicines, or advice on diet and rest. In China a combination of drugs known as fang was prescribed to combat disease thought to be caused by angered spirits.
In the 1800s medical scientists discovered micro-organisms, such as staphylococci and streptococci, were causes of disease, and began to investigate them with microscopes. The physician Paul Ehrlich, who worked in Robert Koch’s bacteriology lab, searched for chemicals that would stain specific germs to make them more visible under the microscope. He reasoned that he could not only stain but also attack these germs if he could find a chemical that would both attach itself to the germ and kill it. He called these chemicals ‘magic bullets’. (According to an old superstition, bullets could be charmed to make sure that they would hit a particular person.)